I. From the depths of centuries or history of occurrence.
How does acquaintance with the breed begin? Probably from the question, but how did she come about? So where did the Chihuahua come from?
The official version says that the birthplace of this breed is Mexico, where it was cultivated by the Mayan, Toltec and Aztec Indian tribes. Scientists made this conclusion when they discovered during excavations the ancient Toltec temples dating from the 5th century AD. On their walls were small dogs, very reminiscent of modern chihuahuas. Toltecs called them “Techichi” and considered a living talisman of good luck and the favor of the gods.
When the tribe of the Toltecs conquered the Aztecs, but gold and skins as trophies, and they got a little “Techichi” from which tribe leaders were crazy. For a long time, only the leaders and high priests could have such a dog, they attributed magical powers to it and allowed it to be sacred to rituals.
For example, if the host Techichi died in combat pet, along with his remains were placed in a funeral pyre. The Aztecs believed that Techichi`s big eyes will illuminate the former owner the road in the afterlife and to ward off evil spirits from him.
In some cases, instead of real dogs, their sculptures were used in the rite.
The Aztec civilization continued for almost 500 years, until the Spanish conquerors pushed the Aztecs in the 16th century. They were less sentimental towards the small companions of the Indians and even ate them as food, considering it a delicacy, so the breed was on the verge of extinction.
At the beginning of the 19th century, miniature dogs were discovered in the families of simple peasants who lived near the ruins of the castle of the last Aztec emperor Montezuma.
In the same period, the breed got its name, known to us today. It comes from the name of the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
Soon, such dogs fell in love with American travelers, who considered it their duty to bring to their homeland not only a bottle of Mexican tequila, but also a living souvenir – a chihuahua.
At the end of the century, authoritative American dog handler John Watson became interested in such dogs. It was he who founded the first Chihuahua nursery in America and gave a powerful impetus to the final formation of the breed. Already at the beginning of the 20th century, Chihuahuas began to take part in exhibitions, and in 1923 the first breed standard was developed and a Chihuahua club was created.
Later, the fashion for these dogs was picked up by Britain, as usual, “having inserted its 5 pence.” The British proposed to divide one breed into two: a smooth-haired and a long-haired chihuahua, although earlier they performed in the same ring. The Americans liked this idea, and since 1954 this rule has remained in force.
On the territory of the former Soviet Union, the Chihuahua came in the early 60s of the last century. Cuban friends gave two puppies to Nikita Khrushchev’s family. After a couple of years, chihuahua appeared in other houses of the Kremlin elite. They were brought from Algeria, England and Mexico as souvenirs to members of the Communist Party. On these tailed gifts, the breeding of Chihuahuas in Russia and, later, in Ukraine was also built at first.
II. Features of the breed.
Chihuahua is a charming breed of miniature dogs, which in the Guinness Book of Records is called the smallest dog on the planet.
Nature creates everything harmoniously, so she gave the little Chihuahua a huge soul and a bold character. By the way, among the decorative breeds, these are the most calm and balanced dogs.
They are real companion dogs whose purpose is to love their master, to be always there, to bring a sea of positive emotions.
These little creatures fit perfectly into the rhythm of life of a modern ever-employed person.
For example, you can travel to Chihuahua, holding her in his arms, it will be settled without any problems even in a fashionable hotel, let to an expensive restaurant. Your pet will not cause any problems either on public transport or in a car or in an airplane (by the way, it is not necessary to hand in luggage, he will comfortably sleep the entire flight in your arms.)
Caring for a chihuahua is quite simple and enjoyable. This applies to both smooth and long-haired representatives of the breed. At least once a week, comb your long-haired friend a special comb and smooth coat – with brush bristle.Once every two or three weeks, trim the regrown claws of your pet.
Periodically check the purity and health of the auricles, regularly wipe the eyes and hair under them (if they are watery). After each walk, wash paws under running water. Well, it is recommended to bathe a Chihuahua – no more than 1 time per month, since shampoos wash off the natural protective fat layer that covers the hair and skin.
It should be noted that these babies are very clean, rarely get dirty and do not have the “dog” smell characteristic of many dogs. They, like pugs, will never walk in mud or puddles. And hardly in bad weather you will want to roam the street.
Some dog handlers call a chihuahua – a breed for the lazy, because you can easily accustom it to the tray, eliminating the need to walk the dog early in the morning or late in the evening. If you are busy all day at work or on the street in bad weather, your “pupil” will also do all his “affairs” at home, in a specially designated place.But on a sunny day – why not please yourself and your pet for a walk? It’s unfair to limit the space of your pet with the walls of the apartment. Show him this beautiful world and explain the rules of behavior in it.
Despite the external fragility, representatives of this dwarf breed are quite hardy and will be happy to keep you company even in a long walk.
The only thing to remember is that these miniature dogs are very sensitive to low temperatures. Therefore, in the cold season, it is necessary to wear overalls on them.
Chihuahuas are desperate brave men: they often overestimate their strength, which is why they get into unpleasant situations. Therefore, in city conditions, always walk with them on a leash. In the crowd, always take the “baby” in your arms or put it in a bag. But do not give in to the temptation to constantly carry your “little one” in your arms.And although your four-legged companion is small enough, he needs movement. A sufficient amount of movement ensures the correct formation of the skeleton and has a beneficial effect on the whole organism. It is naive to believe that even a large space of your home can replace a full walk in the fresh air.
Despite the pronounced preference of fellow breeds, the Chihuahua warmly and cordially treats other domestic animals, provided that they will not offend her and be the first to provoke scandals.
From the first days of appearing in a new house, the Chihuahua is strongly attached to the owner and members of his family, trying to protect them from all sorts of troubles. Representatives of this breed have an unusually developed intuition, thanks to which they “feel” people, therefore they will always let you know if a person with bad intentions or insincere attitude has come to your house.
Unlike the good-natured pug who loves everyone and everything, the Chihuahua is very wary of strangers.
These little dogs are unusually smart and quick-witted; they lend themselves well to training. They are able to understand not only our words and gestures, but also capture the slightest shades of our mood. Also, these “midgets” of the canine world are unusually obedient, though a bit jealous.Chihuahuas are very devoted creatures, ready to follow their beloved master everywhere. When you go from room to room and don’t see your baby, don’t look for her – she is standing behind you and watching where you are going. If the owner is reading or sleeping, sitting at the computer, or just talking to someone, the chihuahua will patiently wait until they pay attention to her. And if you decide to play with her, she will bring you an abandoned toy over and over again. It’s funny to see how important this little girl is wearing a soft toy around the room several times big than her size. Speaking of toys.
Like any “human cub”, each dog has his favorite toys. When pug puppies periodically appear in our family, our beauty plays with them, even lets them steal dry food from her plate (this does not apply to meat), but she will not give her beloved rubber pig.
Like any “model child”, you will not find the mess in the room. You need to see with what “business” look this baby collects toys for his “sleeping place” at night.
Like all decorative dogs, the Chihuahua loves to sleep in the owner’s bed under the covers, clinging to his loved one. Even when you come home from work, you can find your pet sleeping under a blanket. Perhaps this is how he feels more protected. Therefore, from the whole variety of sleeping places for animals, instead of the usual dogbed, buy a baby a house. He will be grateful to you!
Having a small size, Chihuahuas eat little. And even a small piece of cheese, which, for example, a pug “on one tooth”, a little “chihua” will bring a lot of pleasure and will serve as a weighty addition to dinner.
By the way, do not be surprised if your well-fed chihuashka will hide several pieces of food in a secret place. Despite the fact that these “descendants of ancient civilizations” have been living close to humans for a very long time, some instincts of their wild ancestors, such as, for example, “harvesting food for the future,” remained with them.
And no matter how we try to “humanize” our favorites, we should remember: “Their world is older than ours and more perfect, and they themselves are more finished and perfect creatures than you and I. They have preserved many of the feelings that people have lost and live , listening to voices that are inaccessible to our hearing … “(G. Beston)
III. What should a chihuahua be like?
In short: Representatives of this breed are distinguished by a rounded head, like an apple, widely set expressive eyes and large erect ears with rounded tips. The breed’s features also include a tail-bearing manner, like a flag – confidently and proudly.
This doggie has an excellent reaction and light, full of grace, movement.
There are two varieties of chihuahua – smooth-haired and long-haired. In the former, short hair adheres tightly to the body, it is soft and silky to the touch, has a characteristic luster. The second coat is long, straight or wavy, but not curly and not shaggy. A long-haired chihuahua should have a spectacular frill on its neck, tows on its hind legs and a lush sultan on its tail.
Any of the two types of chihuahuas can have a whole palette of all kinds of colors. Marble color (merle) is considered inadmissible.
For a long time, the molera (an open place on the fontanel) was considered a hallmark of the breed and almost the most reliable evidence of the thoroughbredness of a particular dog. But the FCI standard, adopted in 2004, does not welcome a large fontanel and allows only a minor one, and the recent amendment to the breed standard adopted by the Kennel Federation of Mexico – the birthplace of the breed – generally classifies the molera as one of the shortcomings and calls on experts to fine for its presence.
In some articles, you can read that Chihuahuas can be the so-called cobby-type (stocky) and deer-type (similar to small deer), however, the “main pedigree document” does not recognize such a division into types. Moreover, deer-like dogs with a lightweight head, a long neck, a slender body and long legs FCI standard refers to disqualifying vices.
(A more detailed description of this breed can be found in the section: “Chihuahua. Standard.”)
It should also be noted that, unlike many other breeds, the Chihuahua has good health and is a long-liver. Often reaching the age range of 15 to 19 years.
IV. I want a “Mini”!
In ads, you can often find offers for the sale of a Chihuahua mini-standard.
So: In this breed there is no division into “mini”, “supermini”, etc. Some breeders use these phrases as “marketing terms” to give interest to their puppies. Yes, indeed, Chihuahuas can be of different weights, but they are never classified by this attribute. Whatever their weight is, they are simply called Chihuahuas. Some are simply bigger or smaller than others. The larger ones are usually stronger and healthier.
Many kennel owners believe that the average weight of an adult chihuahua should be in the range of 1.8 to 3 kg so that the health of the dog and its offspring is maintained at an optimal level. However, there were dog breeders who wanted to breed Chihuahuas weighing no more than 0.9 – 1.4 kg. Demand, as they say, creates supply. However, attempts to reduce the already small breed do nothing good. Such “crumbs”, as a rule, have various health problems. Also, it is noticed that their life “age” is shorter in order. So, if you are configured to purchase such a “microbe”, be prepared for this.
Responsible breeders never try to purposefully breed such fragile dogs. If in their litters such puppies are found, then this is more an exception than a given.
In the current FCI Standard No. 218 / 10.21.2009 / it says: Ideal weight: from 1.5 to 3 kg, dogs weighing from 500 grams to 1.5 kg are allowed. Individuals weighing more than 3 kg will be disqualified. ”
If serious Western authors have their own, certain points of view on a number of issues, then they are unanimous in one thing: the desire to miniaturize Chihuahua beyond measure, the pursuit of “small grams”, and “speculation around weight” cause serious harm to the breed.
The one-sided orientation on the minimum weight of the Chihuahua does not contribute to the improvement of this wonderful breed, because:
– leads to the exclusion of dogs with this weight from the breeding.
– makes their successful exhibition career doubtful (only allowed);
– detrimental to their health.
Therefore, if the puppy seller specializes in breeding only such tiny creatures, you should think about it.
V. “Get anyone but not a Chihuahua” or “Who should not have a representative of this breed.”
1. Do not get a chihuahua in families with preschool children, because a small child does not measure his strength and should he squeeze the dog a little harder, for her this will result in a serious injury. A chihuahua puppy is quite nimble, you can accidentally drop it, or he will jump off the couch, and falling from a small height for such a baby is fraught with unpleasant consequences. In the end, you can just sit on the “baby” when he curls up under a blanket, where he usually likes to sleep.
Preschoolers usually move very fast in their games, sharply changing direction, making loud noises, which can lead to stress of the chihua and as a result provoke an aggressive reaction of the dog. Older children quickly learn the proper handling of
this breed. They have a sense of responsibility for the well-being of a living creature, and they develop the right attitude towards animals in general.
2. Do not buy a chihuahua as a “living toy” for a child. Satisfying the next whim of your son or daughter, think about whether someone else needs a dog in your house and what will you do with it when the child plays enough?
When buying a dog for a child, you know – you get it for yourself, and it is for you to raise and educate both her and your child.
3. Do not get a puppy if you are day-at-day at work and come home at night-after midnight. Do not make the dog miserable. Chihuahuas are very dedicated creatures who need close contact with their beloved master. Left alone for a long time, your four-legged friend will lack the attention he loves so much.
If you have little free time, get a hamster, a decorative rat, a chinchilla, a ferret, instead of a dog. Also a living creature in the house, also small, but which does not need regular and prolonged contacts with people.
Another option is possible: if working conditions allow and you do not want to leave your pet at home – you can take a “chihua” with you. He will feel cozy and comfortable in a carrying bag for small dogs. He can also sit quietly for hours at the owner’s hands at some social event, without interfering and not rushing to escape anywhere.
4. Do not take the dog because of prestige or for the sake of fashion. Fashion comes and goes, and you will live together for many years.
Chihuahuas – this is not “glamorous” doll, seated regally on his hands, and above all – a dog, with their needs and visions of the world.
VI. On the crest of fashion.
Today the breed is at the peak of popularity. This is both good and bad at the same time, like a medal, which, as you know, has 2 sides:
On the one hand, fashion gives an impetus to the increasing appearance of decent imported dogs in Ukraine. Hence, good mating and, accordingly, obtaining beautiful pedigree puppies.
But on the other hand, due to increased demand, there is not so much a qualitative as a quantitative increase in the number of livestock. Unfortunately, not only experienced breeders and sincere lovers of this breed are involved in chihuahua breeding, but also ordinary amateurs and dog businessmen, whose life credo is: “Not for the breed, but for the profit …” As a result of their unprofessional approach to breeding , there are a large number of Chihuahua puppies of poor quality and of dubious origin.
Therefore, if you decide to buy a good, and most importantly – a healthy puppy of this or any other breed – contact the professional kennel for the baby where you can get a beautiful dog with a good pedigree. In addition, breeders oversee their puppies and help their new owners with all questions (care, education, feeding, etc.)
The only thing, before buying a pet, you must decide what the dog is purchased for: show activity, breeding, or you just need a pet.
It depends on your choice how much your wallet will be easier after the purchase.
In kennels, as a rule, there is no single price for all puppies – it can fluctuate significantly, it all depends on the uniqueness of the blood, parents’ titles, exhibition and breeding prospects of a puppy.
In conclusion, I would like to quote W. Churchill:
“I do not need much, the best is enough.”
To paraphrase a British politician, I’ll say:
“Do not deny yourself the pleasure of acquiring a high-breed dog from the best breeder.”
I wish you good luck and admiring glances to your pet!
In addition to my personal observations, the article used literature:
1. T. Jan “Chihuahua.”, M., 2009
2. E. Senashenko w. “My friend dog” No. 1-2011
3. Beltyukova V.A., Myagkova E., Zemskova T.Yu., Massar R., Moiseeva L. et al., “Talking about the Chihuahua breed” M., 2002
4. A. Egorova, wc “ZooDrug” No. 5-2010